Other research fellows were drawn from Harvard University and Cambridge University.

Dr. Carl A. Brasseaux, professor of History, director of the Center for Louisiana Studies, and director of the Center for Cultural and Eco-Tourism at the University of Louisiana, was awarded an Archibald Hanna, Jr. research fellowship at Yale University following an international competition. The Hanna fellowship permits Brasseaux to work with French diplomatic correspondence relating to the American Civil War in Yale's Beinecke Library. He is currently negotiating with Yale University Press for possible publication of these diplomatic materials.

The French diplomatic correspondence in question consists of official dispatches from the South’s largest city (New Orleans) to Paris. Charles Prosper Fauconnet, French consul at New Orleans, maintained a copybook of his official correspondence with the French Ministry of State from 1863 through 1868. Fauconnet's confidential dispatches provide not only the most panoramic view of the Civil War and Reconstruction on the Gulf Coast, but they also provide new and important information regarding trans-national dimension of America's fratricidal struggle.

Even more important, however, are the insights that the manuscript provides regarding America's treatment of unnaturalized immigrants in a time of war and great economic distress. New Orleans, one of the nation's two great antebellum boom towns, was America's second leading port of entry before the Civil War, and, like New York, it consequently had a large immigrant population.

French-speaking immigrants constituted a disproportionately large percentage of the resident aliens in New Orleans and its hinterlands. These "Foreign French," as they were known in lower Louisiana, were ostracized by their neighbors, which whom they competed for increasingly scarce jobs, and continuously harassed by both Northern and Southern authorities, who appropriated their property without compensation ostensibly for military purposes, denied the Europeans' claim to neutrality in violation of international law, and, in the later stages of the conflict, threatened them with conscription.

Xenophobia was not directed exclusively at individuals. Within months of the Union occupation of the Crescent City, Northern military authorities embarked upon an official campaign to "Americanize" French New Orleans, beginning with closure of all places of entertainment on Sundays.

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